They live here. They work here. They care. You can help keep local journalism strong right now with your contribution. Thank you. Train Stops Play is the seventeenth episode of the fourth series. Stepney compliments the engines and that Sodor has lots of things that make the Island feel important, especially enjoying long runs. Later, Stepney stops at a red signal by a cricket field where a game has just started.
Stepney does not notice it and starts. The cricketers need the ball for their game, so they climb into their old car Caroline to chase after Stepney.
Stepney has placed his train in a siding, when Caroline wearily arrives at the station with the cricketers who tell Stepney's crew that they need their ball back. The ball is found in the third truck hidden under some hay, then they are ready to return to the cricket field. Amongst other advantages, the centre of mass was only half as high as usual. In the early s, the French National Railway started to receive their new powerful CC electric locomotives, and began to study and evaluate running at higher speeds.
Especially, during the records, a dangerous hunting oscillation , the swaying of the bogies which leads to dynamic instability and potential derailment was discovered. This problem was solved by yaw dampers which enabled safe running at high speeds today. With some 45 million people living in the densely populated Tokyo— Osaka corridor, congestion on road and rail became a serious problem after World War II ,  and the Japanese government began thinking seriously about a new high-speed rail service.
Japan in the s was a populous, resource-limited nation that for security reasons did not want to import petroleum, but needed a way to transport its millions of people in and between cities. Japanese National Railways JNR engineers then began to study the development of a high-speed regular mass transit service.
With the sole exceptions of Russia, Finland, and Uzbekistan all high speed rail lines in the world are still standard gauge, even in countries where the preferred gauge for legacy lines is different.
After initial feasibility tests, the plan was fast-tracked and construction of the first section of the line started on 20 April Speed was only a part of the Shinkansen revolution: the Shinkansen offered high-speed rail travel to the masses. The first Bullet trains had 12 cars and later versions had up to 16,  and double-deck trains further increased the capacity. After three years, more than million passengers had used the trains, and the milestone of the first one billion passengers was reached in Suicides, passengers falling off the platforms, and industrial accidents have resulted in fatalities.
Since their introduction, Japan's Shinkansen systems have been undergoing constant improvement, not only increasing line speeds. Over a dozen train models have been produced, addressing diverse issues such as tunnel boom noise, vibration, aerodynamic drag, lines with lower patronage "Mini shinkansen" , earthquake and typhoon safety, braking distance , problems due to snow, and energy consumption newer trains are twice as energy efficient as the initial ones despite greater speeds.
These Maglev trains still have the traditional underlying tracks and the cars have wheels. This serves a practical purpose at stations and a safety purpose out on the lines in the event of a power failure. However, in normal operation the wheels are raised up into the car as the train reaches certain speeds where the magnetic levitation effect takes over.
It will link Tokyo and Osaka by , with the section from Tokyo to Nagoya expected to be operational by The first generation train can be ridden by tourists visiting the test track. Some improvements were set, notably the signals system, development of on board "in-cab" signalling system, and curve revision. Johnson as part of his Great Society infrastructure building initiatives asked the Congress to devise a way to increase speeds on the railroads.
As of it is still the fastest diesel powered train regular service. Journey times were reduced by an hour for example on the East Coast Main Line , and passenger numbers increased. As of many of these trains are still in service, private operators have often preferred to rebuild the units with new engines rather than replace them. Following the records , two divisions of the SNCF began to study high-speed services.
At the same time, the new "SNCF Research Department", created in , was studying various projects, including one code-named "C Railways possibilities on new infrastructure tracks ". In , the "C03 project" was transferred to public administration while a contract with Alstom was signed for the construction of two gas-turbine high-speed train prototypes, named "TGV ".
The prototype consisted of a set of five carriages, plus a power car at each end, both powered by two gas-turbine engines. The sets used Jacobs bogies , which reduce drag and increase safety. It used gas-turbine powered multiple elements and was the basis for future experimentation with TGV services, including shuttle services and regular high rate schedules. At that time, the classic Paris-Lyon line was already congested and a new line was required; this busy corridor, neither too short where high speeds give limited reductions in end to end times nor too long where planes are faster in city center to city center travel time , was the best choice for the new service.
The oil crisis substantially increased oil prices. In the continuity of the De Gaulle "energy self-sufficiency" and nuclear-energy policy, a ministry decision switched the future TGV from now costly gas-turbine to full electric energy in They used the "TGV " concept, with a permanently coupled set of eight cars, sharing Jacobs bogies , and hauled by two electric power-cars, one at each end.
Being able to use both dedicated high-speed and conventional lines, the TGV offered the ability to join every city in the country at shorter journey times. The German ICE train was similar to the TGV, with dedicated streamlined power cars at both ends, but a variable number of trailers between them.
Unlike the TGV, the trailers had two conventional bogies per car, and could be uncoupled, allowing the train to be lengthened or shortened. In , just in time for the Barcelona Olympic Games and Seville Expo '92 , the Madrid—Seville high-speed rail line opened in Spain with 25 kV AC electrification, and standard gauge , differing from all other Spanish lines which used Iberian gauge. The service was very popular and development continued on high-speed rail in Spain.
The officials favored the X as it had a tilting mechanism. However, the Swedish manufacturer never bid on the contract as the burdensome United States railroad regulations required them to heavily modify the train resulting in added weight, among other things. Eventually, a custom-made tilting train derived from TGV, manufactured by Alstom and Bombardier , won the contract and was put into service in December The service did not meet the 3-hour travel time objective, between Boston and New York City.
The U. The private higher speed rail venture Brightline in Florida started operations along part of its route in early For four decades from its opening in , the Japanese Shinkansen was the only high-speed rail service outside of Europe.
In the s a number of new high-speed rail services started operating in East Asia. High-speed rail was introduced to China in with the Qinhuangdao—Shenyang high-speed railway. The Chinese government made high-speed rail construction a cornerstone of its economic stimulus program in order to combat the effects of the global financial crisis and the result has been a rapid development of the Chinese rail system into the world's most extensive high-speed rail network. State planning for high-speed railway began in the early s, and the country's first high-speed rail line, the Qinhuangdao—Shenyang Passenger Railway , was built in and opened to commercial operation in Planners also considered Germany's Transrapid maglev technology and built the Shanghai maglev train , which runs on a Maglev, however, was not adopted nationally and all subsequent expansion features high-speed rail on conventional tracks.
In the s, China's domestic train production industry designed and produced a series of high-speed train prototypes but few were used in commercial operation and none were mass-produced. The Chinese Ministry of Railways MOR then arranged for the purchase of foreign high-speed trains from French, German, and Japanese manufacturers along with certain technology transfers and joint ventures with domestic trainmakers.
The following year, trains on the newly opened Wuhan—Guangzhou high-speed railway set a world record for average speed over an entire trip, at A collision of high-speed trains on 23 July in Zhejiang province killed 40 and injured , raising concerns about operational safety. A credit crunch later that year slowed the construction of new lines. But by , the high-speed rail boom had renewed with new lines and new rolling stock by domestic producers that had indigenized foreign technology.
In , it represented With both the Gyeongbu Expressway and Korail 's Gyeongbu Line congested as of the late s, the government saw the pressing need for another form of transportation. Construction began on the high-speed line from Seoul to Busan in with the first commercial service launching in The domestically developed HSRx , which achieved Once THSR began operations, almost all passengers switched from airlines flying parallel routes  while road traffic was also reduced. Continuous welded rail is generally used to reduce track vibrations and misalignment.
Almost all high-speed lines are electrically driven via overhead cables, have in-cab signalling , and use advanced switches using very low entry and frog angles. Road Rail Parallel Layout uses land beside highways for railway lines. In Germany, some lines are shared with Inter-City and regional trains at day and freight trains at night. All high-speed trains have been designed to carry passengers only. There are very few high-speed freight services in the world; they all use trains which were originally designed to carry passengers.
During the planning of the Tokaido Shinkansen , the Japanese National Railways were planning for freight services along the route. This plan was later discarded.
The trainsets were either specifically adapted and built, either converted, passenger TGV Sud-Est trainsets. In some countries, high-speed rail is integrated with courier services to provide fast door-to-door intercity deliveries. For example, China Railways has partnered with SF Express for high-speed cargo deliveries  and Deutsche Bahn offers express deliveries within Germany as well as to some major cities outside the country on the ICE network.
Key technologies include tilting trainsets, aerodynamic designs to reduce drag, lift, and noise , air brakes , regenerative braking , engine technology and dynamic weight shifting. While commercial high-speed trains have lower maximum speeds than jet aircraft, they offer shorter total trip times than air travel for short distances.
They typically connect city centre rail stations to each other, while air transport connects airports that are typically farther from city centres.
According to Peter Jorritsma, the rail market share s , as compared to planes, can be computed approximately as a function of the travelling time in minutes t by the formula . In another study conducted about Japan's High-speed rail service, they found a "4-hour wall" in high-speed rail's market share, which if the high speed rail journey time exceeded 4 hours, then people would likely choose planes over high-speed rail. Travel by rail is more competitive in areas of higher population density or where gasoline is expensive, because conventional trains are more fuel-efficient than cars when ridership is high, similar to other forms of mass transit.
Very few high-speed trains consume diesel or other fossil fuels but the power stations that provide electric trains with electricity can consume fossil fuels. In Japan prior to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster and France, with very extensive high-speed rail networks, a large proportion of electricity comes from nuclear power.
Even using electricity generated from coal or oil, high-speed trains are significantly more fuel-efficient per passenger per kilometre traveled than the typical automobile because of economies of scale in generator technology  and trains themselves, as well as lower air friction and rolling resistance at the same speed. High-speed rail can accommodate more passengers at far higher speeds than automobiles. Generally, the longer the journey, the better the time advantage of rail over road if going to the same destination.
Moreover, typical passenger rail carries 2. A typical capacity is the Eurostar , which provides capacity for 12 trains per hour and passengers per train, totaling 9, passengers per hour in each direction. By contrast, the Highway Capacity Manual gives a maximum capacity of 2, passenger cars per hour per lane, excluding other vehicles, assuming an average vehicle occupancy of 1. Similarly commuter roads tend to carry fewer than 1. High speed rail usually implements electric power and therefore its energy sources can be distant or renewable.
This is an advantage over air travel, which currently uses fossil fuels and is a major source of pollution. Studies regarding busy airports such as LAX, have shown that over an area of about 60 square kilometres 23 square miles downwind of the airport, where hundreds of thousands of people live or work, the particle number concentration was at least twice that of nearby urban areas, showing that airplane pollution far exceeded road pollution, even from heavy freeway traffic.
Airplanes and airstrips require trees to be cut down, as they are a nuisance to pilots. Some 3, trees will be chopped due to obstruction issues at Seattle—Tacoma International Airport.
HSR is much simpler to control due to its predictable course. High-speed rail systems reduce but do not eliminate   collisions with automobiles or people, by using non-grade level track and eliminating grade-level crossings.
To date the only two deadly accidents involving a high speed train on high speed tracks in revenue service were the Eschede train disaster and the Wenzhou train collision in which speed was not a factor. In general, travel by high-speed rail has been demonstrated to be remarkably safe. The first high-speed rail network, the Japanese Shinkansen has not had any fatal accidents involving passengers since it began operating in Here's to another four.
Monash University researchers speed up epilepsy diagnosis with machine learning. The technology has been designed to automatically detect abnormal activities in electrical recordings. Exclusive ZDNet interview: If you thought you understood the opportunities offered by 3D printing, think again. We take a look at a technology so amazing, it hardly seems real. Next-generation police dogs now sniff out your electronics. Drugs and weapons are not the only criminal evidence police dogs are on the hunt for.
Wikipedia: This new look is our first desktop redesign in 10 years. Wikipedia's design refresh aims to make the site easier to read and less confusing for new users.
A Microsoft-powered instant two-way translator. An AI-powered two-way translator to fulfill every Trekkie's dream. Users of the new Galaxy Watch3 will now be able to monitor the rhythm of their heart.Ghost Effect - Thomas J. Valentino - Sound Effects Volume 19 Ο Παναθηναϊκός - Λάκης Γαβαλάς - Ο Ύμνος Του Παναθηναϊκού - /8 A Young Gs Perspective - DJ Mister Cee* - .