Arthur Schoonderwoerd. Offertorium: Domine Jesu. Sanctus: Sanctus. Sanctus: Benedictus. Agnus Dei: Agnus Dei. Libera me. Ritter Ignaz von Seyfried. Requiescant in pace. Missa Da Requiem. Denn wir haben hie keine bleibende Statt. Selig sind die Toten. Requiem, Op. Te decet hymnus. Liber scriptus. Qui Mariam. Benedictus, VI. Agnus dei, VII.
Messa da requiem: I. Messa da requiem: II. Messa da requiem: III. Mors stupebit. Messa da requiem: IV. Messa da requiem: V. Quid sum miser.
Messa da requiem: VI. Messa da requiem: VII. Messa da requiem: VIII. Messa da requiem: IX. The composer dedicated the Requiem to the memory of his father. The work is for SATB choir with brief mezzo-soprano and baritone solos. It exists in three versions: one for organ alone with obbligato solo for cello ; one for organ with string orchestra and optional trumpets , harp , and timpani ; and one for organ and full orchestra. The central movement, Pie Jesu, has the only solo for the mezzo-soprano.
Others have pointed out that at the beginning of the Agnus Dei, the choral bass quotes the main theme from the Introitus. Another controversy is the suggestion originating from a letter written by Constanze that Mozart left explicit instructions for the completion of the Requiem on "a few scraps of paper with music on them The various complete and incomplete manuscripts eventually turned up in the 19th century, but many of the figures involved left ambiguous statements on record as to how they were involved in the affair.
This acceptance is quite strong, even when alternative completions provide logical and compelling solutions for the work. The confusion surrounding the circumstances of the Requiem's composition was created in a large part by Mozart's wife, Constanze.
Constanze had a difficult task in front of her: she had to keep secret the fact that the Requiem was unfinished at Mozart's death, so she could collect the final payment from the commission.
Once she received the commission, she needed to carefully promote the work as Mozart's so that she could continue to receive revenue from the work's publication and performance. During this phase of the Requiem's history, it was still important that the public accept that Mozart wrote the whole piece, as it would fetch larger sums from publishers and the public if it were completely by Mozart.
It is Constanze's efforts that created the flurry of half-truths and myths almost instantly after Mozart's death. According to Constanze, Mozart declared that he was composing the Requiem for himself and that he had been poisoned.
His symptoms worsened, and he began to complain about the painful swelling of his body and high fever. Nevertheless, Mozart continued his work on the Requiem, and even on the last day of his life, he was explaining to his assistant how he intended to finish the Requiem. With multiple levels of deception surrounding the Requiem's completion, a natural outcome is the mythologizing which subsequently occurred.
One series of myths surrounding the Requiem involves the role Antonio Salieri played in the commissioning and completion of the Requiem and in Mozart's death generally. While the most recent retelling of this myth is Peter Shaffer 's play Amadeus and the movie made from it, it is important to note that the source of misinformation was actually a 19th-century play by Alexander Pushkin , Mozart and Salieri , which was turned into an opera by Rimsky-Korsakov and subsequently used as the framework for the play Amadeus.
Source materials written soon after Mozart's death contain serious discrepancies, which leave a level of subjectivity when assembling the "facts" about Mozart's composition of the Requiem. For example, at least three of the conflicting sources, all dated within two decades following Mozart's death, cite Constanze as their primary source of interview information. In , Friedrich Rochlitz , a German biographical author and amateur composer, published a set of Mozart anecdotes that he claimed to have collected during his meeting with Constanze in The most highly disputed of these claims is the last one, the chronology of this setting.
According to Rochlitz, the messenger arrives quite some time before the departure of Leopold for the coronation, yet there is a record of his departure occurring in mid-July However, as Constanze was in Baden during all of June to mid-July, she would not have been present for the commission or the drive they were said to have taken together.
La clemenza di Tito was commissioned by mid-July. Also in , Constanze is noted to have given another interview to Franz Xaver Niemetschek ,  another biographer looking to publish a compendium of Mozart's life. He published his biography in , containing a number of claims about Mozart's receipt of the Requiem commission:. This account, too, has fallen under scrutiny and criticism of its accuracy. According to letters, Constanze most certainly knew the name of the commissioner by the time this interview was released in However, the most highly accepted text attributed to Constanze is the interview to her second husband, Georg Nikolaus von Nissen.
Nissen states:. The Nissen publication lacks information following Mozart's return from Prague. This work likely influenced the composition of Mozart's Requiem; the Kyrie is based on the " And with His stripes we are healed " chorus from Handel's Messiah , since the subject of the fugato is the same with only slight variations by adding ornaments on melismata.
Some [ who? Another influence was Michael Haydn 's Requiem in C minor which he and his father were viola and violin players respectively at the first three performances in January Some have noted that Michael Haydn's Introitus sounds rather similar to Mozart's, and the theme for Mozart's "Quam olim Abrahae" fugue is a direct quote of the theme from Haydn's Offertorium and Versus.
In Introitus m. It is quoting the Lutheran hymn Meine Seele erhebet den Herren. The melody is used by many composers e. In the s, a sketch for an Amen Fugue was discovered, which some musicologists Levin, Maunder believe belongs to the Requiem at the conclusion of the sequence after the Lacrymosa.
Robbins Landon argues that this Amen fugue was not intended for the Requiem, rather that it "may have been for a separate unfinished mass in D minor" [ citation needed ] to which the Kyrie K. It is a work of genius, and this genius shines through in many instances, such as the Rex tremendae and the Kyrie. And then yes the supremely memorable moment is the Dies Irae where the drama and imaginative composition is simply overwhelming, so much it outshines about everything else.
Thanks for the list, and it has certainly opened my eyes to efforts which I was not aware of. Dies Irae is certainly not the only interesting part. Lacrymosa is extremely beautiful, and in general I enjoy the whole thing straight through. Verdi never lets any part stay long enough to get boring, his pacing is perfect to me, and the whole mass is really interesting and emotionally compelling. I meet so few people who have heard a single thing by him, including friends who have listened to a far broader range of classical music than me.
If anything I would say Verdi is underrated by the general listener. This has an entirely a capella setting with some imaginative polyphony; in my opinion certainly worth a listen. The Cherubini sounds uncannily like the Gossek Requiem at times. Wonder what Gossek thought if he heard it, as he could have, albeit in his 83rd year. The Gossek Requiem is stunningly good and it I astonishing that he was only 26 and had 69 more years to go when he composed it.
Yes, Kraus produced a Requiem at 19 but it is a less monumental work. The Gossek standouts for me are the Te decet hymnus, tuba mirum and mors stupebit. Thank you for this site and advertising some neglected treasures. If you could build a Mass conformed from your favorite parts of different requiems, to have the most penetrating effect on the people in the congregation and help them in expressing and processing their pain, who would you choose for each part?
It reminds me so much of the race of nibelung sp? Worth a quick listen to if you are unfamiliar with it. Thank you for this. My interest go mostly to the historical and technical aspect of the masterpieces. The Verdi Requiem? Music preference is as personal perhaps as religion. I will always live the richness of the Verdi Requiem. Thank you for the list.
Well, this is the crux of the matter. In my opinion, the job of a funeral mass is to provide solace and comfort for the friends and family of the departed—not to bludgeon them in their time of sorrow with thoughts about judgment and eternal damnation. Most of the Requiems of the great composers are too dramatic and focus on those fearful elements.
There is enough doom-laden material in the prayers and texts of the service itself; by way of contrast, the music should offer consolation and contemplation. Not only is it contemplative in spirit; it is also precise and to the point—not belabouring the text, as other composers do. It is a beautiful work, and little listened to.
Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Previous Next. Klugewicz , Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. This was because modern scholarship denies the common medieval identification of the woman taken in adultery with Mary Magdalene, so Mary could no longer be named in this verse.
In addition, a doxology is given after stanzas 6, 12 and . O thou, God of majesty, gracious splendour of the Trinity conjoin us with the blessed. The text of the sequence is found, with slight verbal variations, in a 13th-century manuscript in the Biblioteca Nazionale at Naples.
It is a Franciscan calendar missal that must date between and for it does not contain the name of Clare of Assisi , who was canonized in , and whose name would have been inserted if the manuscript were of later date.
A major inspiration of the hymn seems to have come from the Vulgate translation of Zephaniah — That day is a day of wrath, a day of tribulation and distress, a day of calamity and misery, a day of darkness and obscurity, a day of clouds and whirlwinds, a day of the trumpet and alarm against the fenced cities, and against the high bulwarks.
Douay—Rheims Bible. Other images come from Revelation —15 the book from which the world will be judged , Matthew —46 sheep and goats, right hand, contrast between the blessed and the accursed doomed to flames , 1Thessalonians trumpet , 2Peter heaven and earth burnt by fire , Luke "men fainting with fear From the Jewish liturgy , the prayer Unetanneh Tokef appears to be related: "We shall ascribe holiness to this day, For it is awesome and terrible"; "the great trumpet is sounded", etc.
A number of English translations of the poem have been written and proposed for liturgical use. A very loose Protestant version was made by John Newton ; it opens:. Day of judgment! Day of wonders! How the summons will the sinner's heart confound! Jan Kasprowicz , a Polish poet, wrote a hymn entitled "Dies irae" which describes the Judgment day.
The first six lines two stanzas follow the original hymn's metre and rhyme structure, and the first stanza translates to "The trumpet will cast a wondrous sound". The American writer Ambrose Bierce published a satiric version of the poem in his book Shapes of Clay , preserving the original metre but using humorous and sardonic language; for example, the second verse is rendered:.
The Rev. Bernard Callan — , an Irish priest and poet, translated it into Gaelic aroundView credits, reviews, tracks and shop for the CD release of Dies Irae - The Essential Choral Collection on Discogs.